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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Katz, Roberts, & Robinson, 1965

This paper reports a study in which Black students completed a difficult task with either a Black or White experimenter.  The task was described as testing for either eye-hand coordination or intelligence. When the experimenter was White, the students performed significantly worse when the task was described as a test of intelligence. The opposite pattern was shown with a Black experimenter, so that performance was better when the task supposedly required intelligence.  This study was the first to show that task performance could be reduced by invoking racial stereotypes and foreshadowed the later work on stereotype threat. By demonstrating situational variation in performance, the results also challenged the view of stable racial differences in intelligence.

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